8:00 am – 11:30 am:
T1-Additive Manufacturing: New Trade Space for Additive Manufacturing
(Moderators: Jack Dispenza and Ray Pearson)-Room S320E

8:00 am – 8:30 am:
KEYNOTE: New Trade Space for Additive Manufacturing

Jack Dispenza

8:30 am – 9:00 am:
New Methods of Metal 3D Printing

Ben Arnold, Desktop Metal
Metal 3D Printing has been around for ~ 20 years but has always been quite expensive and cumbersome. New technology now available addresses the key issues of cost and safety to make metal 3D Printing accessible for a much broader range of the market. This presentation will cover the background of the new technology and how it leverages established methods. We will also discuss key applications where the technology is useful. One key area of exploration will be the use of metal 3D printing in the fabrication of injection mold tooling inserts. We discuss which applications are a good fit and why.

9:00 am – 9:30 am:
Carbon: A Tool-Less Injection Molding Technology

David Moore

9:30 am – 10:00 am:
HP Multi Jet Fusion: A Color Capable Production Technology

David Woodlock, HP
Multi Jet Fusion is new to the additive manufacturing industry, but the capabilities enable the process to be used in the manufacture of production quality components. This technical session will present a deep dive into the technology and illustrate how it achieves the value proposition and how to unlock value with the technology. Additionally, applications that are enables by Multi Jet Fusion will be discussed.

10:00 am – 10:30 am:
Dimensional accuracy and design tips for composite parts made by the FDM process

Vittorio Jaker, Stratasys, Inc.
Fiber orientation can create layers with oriented fibers that behave as pseudo-plies, analogous to more conventional continuous fiber or fabric reinforced composites. Warp and distortion of several part geometries produced from carbon fiber composites made on a Stratasys FORTUS 450mc printer are analyzed as a function of the pseudo layup and structures used to fabricate the parts. Practical solutions for mitigating warping and balancing physical properties are proposed.

10:30 am – 11:00 am:
Markforged: Metal AM in a Plastics World

Nick Sondej, HP

11:00 am – 11:30 am:
Panel Discussion: New Trade Space for Additive Manufacturing

8:00 am – 11:30 am:
T2-Bioplastics: Biodegradable Polymers and End of Life
(Moderator: Stephan Laske)-Room S320A

8:00 am – 9:00 am:
KEYNOTE-Bringing Agriculturally Deprived Bioproducts to Market: Challenges and Opportunities

William Orts

9:00 am – 9:30 am:
Study of Biodegradable Polybutylene succinate/Poly (Butylene Adipate-co-Terephthalate) Blends

Feng Wu, University of Guelph
With increasing interest towards biobased and/or biodegradable polymers that generate high performance composites, instead of petroleum based products, creates new opportunities and research challenges. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) is supposed to be one of the most promising biodegradable polyesters because of its good mechanical strength and high heat deflection temperature. However, the low impact strength of poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) has limited its application in some fields. Therefore, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) were melt-compounded to fabricate a novel PBS/PBAT blend to improve the impact strength of PBS. The effect of PBAT on the properties of the final binary blends, including mechanical properties, thermal properties and rheology properties, is studied in this research. Rheological properties revealed a strong shear-thinning tendency of the blend resulting from the high compatibility between PBAT and PBS. The partially compatibilized PBS/PBAT blends show high tensile strength (~50 MPa), high impact strength (~200 J/m) and a moderate tensile modulus (~500 MPa). A PBS/PBAT system can be a good candidate to fabricate high impact biodegradable products.

9:30 am – 10:00 am:
Biodegradation of Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics under Industrial Compost, Marine, and Anaerobic Digestion

Joseph Greene, California State University, Chico
Biodegradation was measured for biodegradable, compostable, and oxodegradable plastics while exposed to aerobic composting, marine, and anaerobic digestion environments. Biodegradable plastics included, corn-starch based biobag, PHA bag, Ecoflex bag, and PLA lids. Positive and negative controls included, Kraft paper and polyethylene. Other plastics included, and oxodegradable plastic bags. For industrial composting environment, compostable plastic products, along with oxodegradable, cellulose paper, Kraft paper, and polyethylene plastic wrap, were placed in an environment consistent with ASTM 5338 conditions. For marine environment, the plastic samples were placed in a test environment consistent with ASTM 6691. For anaerobic digestion, plastic samples were placed in an environment consistent with ASTM 5511. The degradation was evaluated by measuring CO2 gas, which evolves from the degrading plastic samples. For industrial compost conditions, the compostable plastics, namely, PLA, sugar cane, PHA, Ecoflex, and starched-based biobag, degraded at least 90% and met the degradation time requirement in the ASTM D-6400 standard. The oxodegradable, UV-degradable plastics, and LDPE plastic bag had negligible degradation. After 180 days placed in a commercial food-waste composting operation, PLA, PHA, Ecoflex, and corn starch plastics completely degraded. Small fragments of sugar cane lids and Kraft paper were visible. The oxo-biodegradable plastic bags, LDPE plastic bags and UV-degradable plastic bag did not fragment nor degrade. The samples were also exposed to a simulated marine environment. Under marine conditions, PHA experienced significant biodegradation. Alternatively, corn-starch based trash bag, PLA cup, Ecoflex bag, sugar cane lids, UV-degradable plastic ring, and Kraft paper did not exhibit biodegradation under marine conditions. Under anaerobic conditions PHA experienced biodegradation, but PLA, paper, and polyethylene did not.

 10:00 am – 10:30 am:
Tunable Degradation of Poly (Butylene Succinate) by Copolymerization and Catalysts

Siwen Bi, Ph.D Student, UMass Lowell
In recent decades, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) has been attracting attention as a promising and important polymer in the bio-based and biodegradable polymer family due to high thermal resistance and good mechanical properties. However, compared with other biodegradable polyesters (e.g., poly (lactic acid)), the high cost of PBS limits the widespread applications, especially for the packaging industry. In this paper, PBS-based copolyesters were prepared successfully by a two-stage melt synthesis, and degradability of the polyesters was investigated. It was found that the degradability of PBS could be tuned over a wide range by adjusting the degradation catalyst and lowering crystallinity by forming random copolymers. Based on our previous work on the tunable properties of PBS-based polyesters, the degradation results indicated that the enzymatic degradation mainly depends on the morphology and thermal properties, while the ratio of ester groups in polymer is the crucial factor for base-catalyzed hydrolysis.

10:30 am – 11:00 am:
Mechanical Behavior and Anaerobic Biodegradation of a Poly(lactic acid) Blend Containing a Poly(lactic acid)-co-Poly(glycolic acid) Copolymer

Christopher Lewis, Rochester Institute of Technology
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is arguably the most well-known biodegradable plastic. However, its degradation behavior is far from ideal. The goal of this work is to prepare PLA blends that exhibit accelerated biodegradation performance whilst retaining adequate mechanical properties. To accomplish this a copolymer consisting of poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) structural units was synthesized and subsequently melt blended with a commercially available PLA homopolymer. The anaerobic degradation behavior of the polymer blend was greatly enhanced as a result of the incorporation of 20 wt% of the copolymer. A moderate change in mechanical properties including a 20% reduction in stiffness and strength and an 80% increase in elongation to break was also observed.

11:00 am – 11:30 am:
Low Temperature Solution Depolymerization of PLA

John Campanelli, Zeus Industrial Products
A novel depolymerization method using low-temperature, low-pressure alcoholysis of PLA in a ternary solution is outlined in this work. Depolymerization kinetics are studied for the PLA/methanol/chloroform system at 57°C. Large changes in molecular weight can be achieved at relatively mild conditions. A tin catalyst is found to increase the reaction rate significantly. The method is well-suited to industrial recycling processes and is consistent with the concept of a circular economy.