1:30 pm – 5:00 pm:
TH14-Non-Halogen Flame Retardant
(Moderators: Rubinder Lakhman, Roger Avakian & Tim Reilly-Room S322
1:30 pm – 2:00 pm:
New Technology in Non-halogen Flame Retardants: Oxyimides
Rudolf Pfaendner, Division Director Plastics, Fraunhofer Institute
The need to find efficient halogen free flame retardants resulted inter alia in the discovery and commercialization of alkoxyamines (NOR-HALS). NOR-HALS provide flame retardancy of polypropylene and polyolefin fibers, non-wovens and films (1, 2). Through formation of radicals a fast degradation of the polymer chain is induced and flame retardancy is achieved by removing the substrate from the flame. Moreover alkoxy amines can act as synergists with brominated flame retardants (3, 4). However, due to the chemical structure alkoxy amines show only limited thermal stability during usual processing steps and the often requested UL 94 V-0 classification is difficult to achieve. The performance gap to provide advanced halogen free flame retardants and flame retardant synergists for polyolefins has been closed through the discovery of a new class of nitrogen based radical generators with oxyimide structure (5). An important feature of the unique oxyimide structure is the opportunity to synthesize molecules, depending on the substitution pattern, in a vast decomposition range between 180 °C and 380 °C. Thus oxyimides can be tailor-made with regard to the polymeric substrate to be flame-retarded. Moreover polymeric structures and oxyimides with additional flame retardant functions are accessible (6, 7). Oxyimides act as single flame retardant in polyolefin films, however to achieve the UL 94 standard synergistic combinations are preferred. A synergistic activity of oxyimides can be identified with a wide range of halogen free flame retardants including aluminum trihydroxide (ATH), aluminum diethyl phosphinate, phosphates, phosphonates, phosphazenes a.o. The selection of the preferred synergist is based on the decomposition temperature to allow adequate interaction between the oxyimide, the synergist and the polymer. In combination with selected phosphorus derivatives flame retarded polypropylene with UL 94 V-0 classification is reached at loadings below 10 %, a major breakthrough in flame retardancy. Similar synergistic combinations offer UL 94 V-0 classification for different polyethylene grades and other polymers. The interaction of the oxyimide and the synergist is proven through a considerable lower burning temperature of test samples compared to the individual molecules. For the further commercial development of the technology an industrial partnership is established.
Maryline Desseix, Leader, Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Technology Platform, PolyOne
How can a manufacturer meet its goals for product design and performance, including flame retardance, while also peering far enough into the future to forecast which direction flame retardant regulation might head? In her presentation Maryline Desseix will present the challenges of a formulator in an environment of “fast” evolution of regulations governing flame retardancy while balancing the increasingly rigorous industry standards driving functional performances needs. She will look back over the history of the past years and discuss the directions that future laws may lead. Any changes in the regulatory landscape will impact the path that flame retardant R&D must take, and Maryline will lay out the formulation approaches most likely to succeed.
2:30 pm – 3:00 pm:
Reduced Flammability Polyurethane Foams
Gordon Nelson, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Florida Institute of Technology
Fire resistant grades of flexible polyurethane foams need to be compliant with increasing toxicological and environmental demands. The required degree of flame retardancy varies with application and specific standards. The work performed examined some of these requirements and adapted specific chemistries to provide technically feasible environmental solutions, including the use of a non-halogen, bound-in/reactive (non-migrating) flame retardant package, resulting in low VOC. Bench scale test methods, including Cone Calorimetry, Oxygen Index, and Radiant Panel were combined with industry large scale tests for furniture, mattresses, and packaging. Results show that using chemistries compliant with demands for safer products meet and often exceed requirements. Reduction in Cone Calorimeter Peak Heat Release Rates from 1600 kW/m2 to 170 kW/m2 and improvements on Oxygen Index to values of 29+ are among the factors leading to passing such standards as CAL TB 133, BS 5852, 16CFR1633, CAL TB 129, NFPA 267 (Navy Modification) and the FAA Oil Burner Test.
3:00 pm – 3:30 pm:
Towards a Carbon to Building Concept: The Material and Assembly Challenges
Mark Goulthorpe, Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This presentation will offer an overview of the perfect storm that projected global construction forecasts portend, highlighting the need for radically benign and affordable new building technologies. At issue will be the prospect of lightweight, thin-skin composite buildings as a generalized new global housing logic, offering a radical re-orientation of hydrocarbon reserves from primary use as fuel to building materials. The case will be made for the environmental, logistical and economical benefit that this could offer, and for the potential elegance of Carbonhouse in its capacity to absorb many technical functions that buildings require: a versatile carbon shroud for a versatile carbon organism – the 21st century human. Furthermore this presentation will shed light on the issues encountered in actually implementing this concept as construction involves assembly not just a test piece. The material challenges are numerous but ripe for creativity in material science, processing, design and automation.
3:30 pm – 4:00 pm:
Achieving International Building Code Recognition of Polymeric Building Materials: Challenges for Material and Assemble Designers
Nicholas Dempsey, Professor, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
To achieve acceptance of polymeric building materials, manufacturers must be able to demonstrate to architects and engineers that their materials and related assemblies meet the fire performance requirements implicit in the International Building Code (IBC). This model code as amended locally is used extensively in the USA to regulate building design and construction. This presentation will discuss key IBC applications of materials and assembles. Successful strategies to meet fire performance requirements of these applications will be discussed for non-load bearing and load bearing applications.
4:00 pm – 4:30 pm:
Flame Retardants in Consumer Products: Overview and Perspective on the Proposed CPSC Ban
Jared Schwartz, Exponent Inc.
Andrew Worthen, Exponent
The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) voted on September 20, 2017 to initiate rulemaking which will potentially ban organohalogen flame retardants (OFRs) in some types of consumer products. At the sametime they issued a guidance document which recommends that manufacturers refrain from using non-polymeric organohalogen flame retardants in those products. In light of the CPSC actions, this paper summarizes alternative flame retardants currently commercially available to manufacturers, technical considerations of formulation changes, testing options, and an outlook for the future of flame retardants in consumer products.
4:30 pm – 5:00 pm:
Development & Commercialization of NHFR Technologies
Nicholas Dempsey, Professor, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Maryline Desseix, Leader, Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Technology Platform, PolyOne, Mark Goulthorpe, Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gordon Nelson, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Florida Institute of Technology, Rudolf Pfaendner, Division Director Plastics, Fraunhofer Institute, Jared Schwartz, Exponent Inc., Andrew Worthen, Exponent