1:30 pm – 5:00 pm:
M11-Color and Appearance
(Moderator: Michael Willis)-Room S320D
1:30 pm – 2:00 pm:
KEYNOTE – Global Automotive Color Trend, Popularity and Who’s Driving
George Ianuzzi, Senior Sales Manager, Sandream Impact LLC
Exploring a common thread amongst car owners worldwide, color. We will look at how and why car colors are popular regionally and what drives these global markets. What are the major influences that determine whether your car color will remain as the “hot trendy color” or be outdated in a few years. We will address the evolution of a car color, from the upstream design ( could be up to 5 years) to the development of the OEM/Refinish perspective. We will also take some unique examples of color outliers that have been and will be a force in color selection.
2:00 pm – 2:30 pm:
A Review of Titanium Dioxide Photo-activity in Polypropylene
Philipp Niedenzu, Chemours
Titanium dioxide is a common pigment used in plastic applications to provide opacity and provide protection of the polymer matrix against photo-oxidation The color and photo-durable functions of pigmentary titanium dioxide are the most relevant for plastic applications which experience exposure to wavelengths less than 700 nm and greater than 300 nm from solar or artificial light exposure, i.e. visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. TiO2 efficiency to deliver the functions of color and photo-durability is related to the TiO2 surface coating, concentration of TiO2 and certain organic stabilizer additives. This paper describes the relationship of these factors by monitoring the decay of polypropylene gloss based under accelerated exposure conditions.
2:30 pm – 3:00 pm:
Understanding Warpage in Injection-Molded Thermoplastics; Causes and the Latest Pigmentary Solutions
Breeze Briggs, Technical Specialist, Pigments., BASF Colors & Effect USA, LLC
This paper seeks to enlighten the newcomer to formulating color and additives masterbatches for thermoplastics with an overview on the issues of shrinkage and warpage. First, the two concepts will be defined and differentiated followed by a description of how they are quantified or characterized in the literature. Some of the many variables that impact warpage will be touched on after which the special role organic pigments can play will be elucidated. Finally, there will be a brief review of the recent developments in non-warping pigments and other strategies formulators use to mitigate warping.
3:00 pm – 3:30 pm:
Extending the Boundaries: Bismuth-based Pigments for the Plastics Industry
Cristina Zanzottera, DCC Maastricht BV
The versatile solid-state chemistry of Bismuth allows for a variety of coordination complexes and the generation of new and robust inorganic pigments as a result. Bismuth has been used in combination with a few inorganic elements, and is most readily found as complexes containing amines and amides, alkoxides, carboxylates, thiolates, and halides. Bismuth Nitrate is amongst one of the most common starting materials for synthesizing Bismuth complexes, and from this starting material the first Bismuth Vanadate pigments (PY.184) were formulated in 1985. There has been continued innovation in this pigment chemistry over the years, and in 2015 a groundbreaking Bismuth orange with a unique color index, PO.86, was launched (proprietary technology of DCC). Since their commercial introduction in 1990 (first production for Ciba, The Netherlands) into the coatings & plastics markets, Bismuth Vanadate pigments have increased in importance as their field of application has grown. These bright yellow, highly saturated pigments are characterized by their outstanding opacity/hiding power, chemical resistance, excellent weathering and durability. DCC’s 3rd innovative generation of Bismuth Vanadate pigments have expanded the limitations of this chemistry to cover a wider color gamut from greenish-yellow to orange hues. Advances such as improving the heat stability has increased the utilization of Bismuth Vanadate products in engineering resins e.g. Nylon 6. Increasing the color strength has created value in use for many customers who want to use less pigment whilst maintaining the hiding power within their system. Moreover, introducing Stir-In technology has helped to reduce operating costs by making the pigment easier to disperse, therefore reducing pressure rise in the extruder and reducing the number of extruder screen changes required during production. Improvements in our manufacturing technologies have allowed DCC to attain the most demanding and specific performance attributes such as heat stability & dispersibility. Through intensive research DCC has been able to introduce an exciting new inorganic pigment into the market, based on Bismuth and identified by a new color index: PO.86. This clean yellow shade inorganic orange has outstanding hiding power, typical of inorganic pigments and represents an excellent starting base for orange colour matches. Additionally, PO.86 is non-warping and has very good heat stability (up to 250 °C): it is therefore strongly recommended for use in polyolefin based plastics, and architectural, industrial, powder, automotive & coil coating applications. There are only a few options for formulators in this shade area (most of which are based on organic starting materials), but none of these alternatives have the same level of durability and opacity as PO.86. This paper will illustrate how Bismuth Vanadate and Bismuth Orange pigments compare to other colorants in the green shade yellow to orange shade areas, with particular reference to performance attributes such as heat stability, dispersibility, weather-fastness, warp resistance and reference how these products perform in different polymer systems. This presentation is thus ideal for those who work & formulate with color and would like to develop a greater understanding of how PY.184 and PO.86 pigments influence the plastics they work with.
3:30 pm – 4:00 pm:
Optimizing Color: A Pigment- and Surface-Chemistry Perspective
Christopher Beier, Clariant Plastics and Coatings USA, Inc.
Effectively dispersing organic pigments within polymeric matrices is essential in maintaining consistent color and physical properties. Each and every pigment is chemically and physically unique, allowing for a myriad of potential molecular and macroscopic interactions to take place. This paper will discuss the physical (e.g. particle size, shape, distribution, morphology, surface area, porosity, etc.) and chemical (surface energy, polarizability, zeta potential, solubility, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, etc.) properties impacting a pigment’s interaction with its environment.
4:00 pm – 4:30 pm:
VOC Reducing Additives for Masterbatches and Final Polymer Articles
Rob Lorenzini, Maroon Group
The reduction of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in polymers is becoming more important as many automotive producers and OEMs are seeking to meet stringent specifications regarding VOCs in automobile cabins. In addition, “cosmetic organoleptics” are becoming more important as polymers continue to replace other materials such as metals, and as consumers remain generally wary of polymers in their lives from a health and safety perspective. Herein, synthetic aluminosilicate polymer additives are shown, quantitatively, to reduce the VOCs/odors resultant from processing and the end-use of polymeric articles. Various gas chromatography experiments are utilized to quantitatively show the chemical species that are captured by this powerful additive, as well as human sniffing testing to qualitatively show the effects on the perceived odor. In addition to size exclusion mechanisms, this synthetic mineral additive derives its specificity from the inherent hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the different zeolite crystal lattices.
4:30 pm – 5:00 pm:
Keynote: Color Theory and Test Methods
Betty Puckerin, Global Manager, Ampacet Corporation
Betty Puckerin has worked at Ampacet Corporation for 27 years. She started as a color chemist and worked briefly as a development chemist while completing her chemistry degree at Indiana State University. In 2011, she earned a MBA from Indiana State University. As a global manager, Betty manages internal color management systems, coordinates global color projects and colorant qualification. Betty has served on the CAD Board of Directors for several years and completed a rotation through the executive committee, ending as Past-Chair in 2015. Betty co-chaired the CAD RETEC 2015 in Indianapolis with Scott Heitzman and has volunteered to chair the Education Committee.
The Introduction to Color presentation is a collaboration of the Education Committee and the CAD Board of Directors. The project was originally led by Steve Goldstein, who is greatly missed by the Education Committee, CAD Board of Directors and colleagues in the color and plastics community. In 2017, the Education Committee initiate a review to update the presentation.
CAD Education Committee: Breeze Briggs, BASF Colors and Effects; Jeff Drusda, Silberline; Steve Esker, Paramount; Mark Freshwater, Lansco Pigments; Scott Heitzman, Sun Chemical; Jack Ladson, Color Science Consultancy; Bruce Mulholland, Celanese; Alex Prosapio, Ferro; Betty Puckerin, Ampacet Corporation; Mark Ryan, Shepherd Color; Mark Tyler, Celanese and Brian West, Techmer PM.
1:30 pm – 6:00 pm:
M12-Engineering Properties and Structure: Innovations in Packaging and Plastics
(Moderators: MaryAnn Jones and Joel Carr)-Room S320B
1:30 pm – 2:00 pm:
Effective of Resin Selection on Pore Formation of Polyethylene Film
Wenyi Huang, The Dow Chemical Company
This paper reports the importance of resin selection on the pore formation of semicrystalline homopolymer polyethylene (PE) films by cold stretching at room temperature and the subsequent hot stretching at an elevated temperature. Five different PE resins with various crystallinities and molecular weights were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), conventional gel permeation chromatography (GPC), light-scattering GPC, and X-ray techniques. Mercury porosimetry was employed to characterize the pore structure of PE porous films, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) was used to determine the breathability of these porous films. The result show that high crystallinity (> 0.96 g/cm3), high molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn > 6) and high z-average molecular weight Mz (> 500,000) of PE resins are critical for the pore formation in PE films. The WVTR value of PE porous films can be as high as 345 g•mil /(100 inch2•day).
2:00 pm – 2:30 pm:
Active Packaging Film to Extend Shelf-life of Fresh Poultry
Ankush Gokhale, Bemis Company
A system comprising an antimicrobial compound, an interfacial agent and a vinyl acetate copolymer augments an oxygen barrier package to provide a viable active packaging solution to extend the shelf-life of poultry products. Fresh poultry is a perishable product with a short shelf-life. An antimicrobial-incorporated active packaging film can extend the shelf-life of poultry products and reduce retail and customer shrink substantially. This work provides an overview of the various factors that affect the shelf-life of poultry products, discusses the role of potassium sorbate as an effective antimicrobial agent, and elucidates its incorporation into and release kinetics from the package’s food contact layer.
2:30 pm – 3:00 pm:
Self-Sterilizing Packaging For Medical Devices
Rishabh Jain, Bemis Company
The use of a self-sterilizing package that can sterilize its contents ‘on-demand’ when triggered by specific stimuli (such as ultraviolet energy (UV)) can provide a novel method for medical device sterilization that is faster, safer and more cost-effective than conventional methods in use today. We describe the development of a self-sterilizing package which can release ClO2 gas as a sterilant when triggered with UV light to sterilize medical devices packaged inside. We discuss the scheme of operation of such a package, gas release characteristics, sterilization efficacy, post-sterilization residuals and material-sterilant compatibility. We demonstrate that a sterilization assurance level of 10-6 can be achieved within such a package.
3:00 pm – 3:30 pm:
Impact of Plastics Packaging on Life Cycle Impacts in the U.S. and Canada Substitution Analysis
Emily Tipaldo, American Chemistry Council
Prepared by Franklin Associates for the American Chemistry Council, this study expands upon the 2014 substitution analysis that used life cycle assessment methodology to assess the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of six general categories of plastic packaging produced and sold in North America relative to alternative packaging. The updated analysis includes other life cycle impacts – including but not limited to solid waste generation and consumptive water use, as well as updated energy and GHG results. This presentation will answer the question: if plastic packaging were replaced with alternative types of packaging, how would life cycle impacts, such as energy consumption, water use, and waste generation, be affected?
3:30 pm – 4:00 pm:
Clear Impact Co-polymers for Thermoforming
Kevin Herrington, Braskem
A new technology from Braskem extends the use of clear polypropylene to thermoformed containers for refrigerated conditions. Typical clear polypropylenes have poor impact properties at low temperature. Polypropylene impact copolymers have greatly improved impact properties compared to polypropylene homopolymers and random copolymers but are opaque. This work explores what causes haze in thermoformed polypropylene impact copolymers, how that haze can be improved, and how Braskems new impact copolymer compares to conventional impact copolymers, random copolymers, and with blends.
4:00 pm – 4:30 pm:
Modeling Film Behavior in Pallet Unitization Applications
Pavan Valavala, Dow Chemical Company
Paper will present how modeling can help establish a relationship between film material properties and application performance.
4:30 pm – 5:00 pm:
Reduced Density Polyamide 66 Compounds for Extrusion Applications
Ying Shi, A. Schulman Inc.
Polyamide 66 is widely used in the automotive industry especially for under the hood applications where resistance to high temperature, pressures, and various chemicals are needed. This paper describes the preparation of high melt viscosity, light weighting, and reinforced polyamide 66 compounds made from common injection molding grade. This material is suitable for blow molding and sheet extrusion applications where high melt strength is required. The viscoelastic properties of the compounds were characterized using capillary and oscillation rheometer.
5:00 pm – 5:30 pm:
The Relationship Between Structure and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyester Materials
Jeffrey Jansen, The Madison Group
Three different thermoplastic polyester materials were evaluated to investigate the connection between the structure of the materials and their properties. Three materials representing distinct characteristic structures were selected to contrast the results. The resins evaluated included polycarbonate, with carbonate ester functionality; poly(ethylene –co- 1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate), a poly(ethylene terephthalate) copolymer; and poly(ethylene naphthalate), with two condensed aromatic rings. The characteristics tested as part of this work included tensile properties to illustrate the short-term mechanical attributes, glass transition temperatures to represent the thermal response of the materials, and creep modulus to demonstrate the time dependency.
5:30 pm – 6:00 pm:
Effect of Annealing on the Viscoelastic Behavior of Poly(ether-ether-ketone)
Zhiyuan Jiang, Texas A&M University
The influence of annealing on the viscoelastic behavior of poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) was investigated. The effect of annealing at different temperatures on the crystallinity of PEEK was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. This effect on the viscoelastic behavior of PEEK was further studied using dynamic mechanical analysis. The master curves were generated for creep and stress relaxation measurements at temperatures below Tg and subsequently a physics-based model was employed to predict the long-term viscoelastic behavior of PEEK within this temperature window of interest. The results indicated that annealing increased the degree of crystallinity and increased the activation energy of β-relaxation (Eβ), which correlates to the molecular motions below Tg and explains why the creep and stress relaxation slowed down after annealing. The modeling results also suggested a higher degree of restriction on the molecular mobility, which is consistent with Eβ results obtained from DMA.