8:00 am – 11:30 am:
M1-Additive Manufacturing
(Moderators: Kal Migler and Ray Pearson)-Room S320E

8:00 am – 8:30 am:
3D Printed Capsules for On-Site Formulations

Derrick Smith, Merck
Drug Product development is a long and expensive process which eventually translates into a higher cost to the payer. Thus, any opportunity to reduce the development timeline is beneficial for the company and the patients. Here, a novel 3D printed (3DP) capsule strategy is disclosed which we believe could enable more informed drug product development with potential to positively impact development timelines. To print these small images, software engineering is required to manufacture defect-free capsules. Additionally, further consideration may be required beyond the normal processing conditions of temperature, speed and quench rate, to realize robust capsules. These capsule walls can be varied to result in burst releases with controlled delay times ranging from immediate to up to 2.5 hours.

8:30 am – 9:00 am:
Modification of PLA for Improved Layer-to-Layer Adhesion in 3-D Printed Parts

Michael Thompson, McMaster University
This study examines the influence that modifying the chemical structure of poly(lactic acid) can have on improving the mechanical properties of a 3-D printed part. A multi-functional chain extender was used to change the polyester such that its rheological response resembled an increasingly branched polymer chain. The modified polyesters were printed into two-layer rectangular specimens and subsequently analyzed for tensile properties as well as adhesive strength by 180 degree peel testing. With increasing chain extender content, the printed specimen exhibited increased toughness and tensile strength, along with greater adhesive strength. The more highly branched, the greater interlayer adhesion as polymer chains diffusion and entangle across the interface.

9:00 am – 9:30 am:
Influence of the Layer Time on the Resulting Part Properties in the Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Frederick Knoop, Paderborn University – DMRC
The Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process by Stratasys is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that can be used to produce complex thermoplastic parts without the need of a forming tool. A big challenge of this process is that there are several influencing factors with unknown effect on the resulting part properties. One of these factors is the layer time. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of the layer time on the resulting dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of FDM components manufactured with the amorphous polymer ABS-M30. For this purpose a special job layout was designed to vary the layer time within a certain range. The investigations in this paper show a significant influence on the dimensional accuracy and also on the mechanical properties.

9:30 am – 10:00 am:
Effects of Polymer Rheology on Predicted Die Swell and Fiber Orientation in Large Scale Polymer Composite Additive Manufacturing

Zhaogui Wang, Baylor University
Zhaogui Wang received his BSME from Dalian University of Technology in Dalian, China (2014), an MSME from Baylor University (2016) and is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering at Baylor, working with Dr. Douglas Smith. His current research focuses on simulating polymer melts associated in the large scale additive manufacturing area. He enjoys basketball and soccer. He is from Dalian, China.

10:00 am – 10:30 am:
Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Compounds for Large Format Additive Manufacturing (LFAM)

Rabeh Elleithy, SABIC
This is a technical marketing presentation about “Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Compounds for Large Format Additive Manufacturing (LFAM)

10:30 am – 11:00 am:
The Influence of Melt Flow Rate and Nozzle Temperature in Fused Filament Fabrication

Nicole Hoekstra, Western Washington University
This study investigated the influence of the melt flow rate of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and nozzle temperature used in fused filament fabrication (FFF) on layer adhesion and printability. Prediction of the mechanical properties of printed parts, and the optimal process parameters for each material, is an area of continued difficulty. Test specimens were printed using four ABS filaments (representing a range of melt flow rates) at three different nozzle temperatures. Ultimate tensile strength, dimensional accuracy, bridging performance, and surface roughness were investigated using designed experiments. In general, low nozzle temperatures correlated to lower layer adhesion, but higher dimensional accuracy. Build plate position was not a significant factor for horizontal specimens but was for vertical specimens. Bridging performance and surface roughness were not affected by the melt flow index or nozzle temperature.

11:00 am – 11:30 am:
Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Polylactide/Microfibrillated Polyamide Composites

Nahal Aliheidari, Ph.D Student, Washington State University
Nahal Aliheidari is a PhD student at the school of mechanical and material engineering of Washington state university. Her current research field is development of novel polymer materials for FDM- 3D printing.

8:30 am – 11:30 am:
M2-Bioplastics: Biobased Polymer Structures and Analysis
(Moderator: Douglas Hirt)-Room S320A

8:30 am – 9:00 am:
Transamidation of Corn Oil Side-steam Product from Bioethanol Industry as Strategy to Develop Sustainable Polyesteramides

Jean-Mathieu Pin, University of Guelph
The valorization of side-steam products from bio-refinery is of crucial interest to develop further the viability of a bioeconomical system. The corn oil is one of the important co-products from the bioethanol industry with a production of more than 2.7 billion pounds in 2015 in USA. [1] In this investigation we propose to create new materials with higher added value by developing new monomers and polymers through transamidation and successive polyesterification. The resulted sustainable materials can be used as toughening agent for both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers.

9:00 am – 9:30 am:
Nanocellulose as a Sizing Agent for Glass Fiber Towards and Enhanced Glass Fiber — Epoxy Interphase

Joyanta Goswami, Georgia Institute of Technology
Glass fiber/nanocellulose/epoxy interfacial adhesion was explored to determine the optimum coating process and nanocellulose surface chemistry for glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The interfacial adhesion was assessed by photoelastic scattering under a microscope and interfacial shear stress (IFSS) determination by single fiber fragmentation test (SFFT). The effect of nanocellulose as glass fiber coating on the interphase was determined and prospects of nanocellulose sizing of glass fibers (GF) were discussed.

9:30 am – 10:00 am:
On the Use of High-throughput Electrospinning to Produce Optimized Packaging Films from Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Jose Lagaron, IATA-CSIC
This study describes the preparation and characterization of electrospun films made of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) produced by mixed bacterial cultures derived from a cheese whey (CW) industrial by-product. A mild thermal post-processing step carried out on the electrospun fibers mat, at a temperature below the biopolymer’s melting point, yielded a film with high transparency, enhanced crystallinity, and potentially sufficient mechanical and water barrier properties for sustainable packaging applications.

10:00 am – 10:30 am:
Polycaprolactone Nanofibers Containing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Encapsulated Gelatin Particles Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Endothelial Cells and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Cells

YONG-CHAO JIANG, Zhengzhou University
During the regeneration of tissues and organs, growth factors (GFs) play a vital role by affecting cell behavior. However, because of low half-life time and quick degradation of GFs, their stimulations on cells are relatively short and discontinuous. In our study, a releasing scaffold platform, consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-encapsulated gelatin particles, has been developed to extend the influence of GFs on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). The results showed that this kind of scaffold could direct the differentiation of MSCs to ECs and maintain the stability of its tubular structure for an extended period of time, thus suggesting its potential application in vascular tissue engineering.

10:30 am – 11:00 am:
Effect of Shish Material on the Formation of Self Induced Shish-Kebab Structure

Xiaofeng Wang, Zhengzhou University
The shish-kebab structure has been investigated for many years and it has been widely applied in many field, while the formation of the structure has still been found in limited materials. In this study, different electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blended nanofibers with poly (ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PLCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and graphene (GO) were applied as shish materials in the self-induced crystallization and different crystalline structure were obtained. The PCL blended fibers with different internal crystalline structure led to different induced crystal lamellae morphology. By comparing with the surface crystalline structure, it seems that the formation of self-induced nanohybrid shish-kebab (SINSK) structure is regulated simultaneously by a lattice matching mechanism and a soft epitaxy effect in the crystallization process. This study might help people to explore the materials for creation of SINSK structure.